So, in applying the utilitarian principle to this case, the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people occurs when the person is dead. Philosophy Support Materials: Moral Philosophy – Student Activities (H and Int 2) 3 NOTE TO TUTORS These support materials have been designed to support the teaching of the To effectively make these First let us define voluntary euthanasia. According to Utilitarianism, euthanasia can be morally justified, whereas according to Kantian, euthanasia is not morally justifiable; but will argue that neither position provides an adage Tate resolution to the issue, due to the significant flaws that are inherent in … For example, I can use utilitarianism to oppose euthanasia. 451). In reference to Kant’s views on many related issues, such as murder, suicide, autonomy, rationality, Essay, Ask Writer For Help, Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay, Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself, Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay, Do not copy and paste free to download essays. The deliberate act of ending another 's life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. STEP 2: Reading The Euthanasia Kantianism Vs Utilitarianism Harvard Case Study: To have a complete understanding of the case, one should focus on case reading. How is racism depicted in 'Life for a Life' by Alan Paton. • Utilitarianism and Euthanasia • Kantian Ethics and Euthanasia. According to Kant, we should look at our maxims, or intentions, of the particular action. Therefore, since euthanasia meets the moral tankards set by Utilitarianism, it would support the act of euthanasia as a morally sound action. A KANTIAN APPROACH TO EUTHANASIA ABSTRACT The paper addresses the issues of euthanasia and thoroughly analyses Kantian response to the practice in question. Euthanasia through utilitarianism ; Is Euthanasia right or wrong? Two most famous ethicists are John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). (2018, Feb 01). By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure” (Mill, 7). Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism According to Thiroux and Krasemann (2012), utilitarianism is, “a normative ethical theory originally established by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that advocates brining about good consequences or happiness to all concerned” (pp. This practice with the terminally ill is known as euthanasia. Immanuel Kant focuses on actions and labels an action morally right if … According to Kant, we should look at our maxims, or intentions, of the particular action. Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia is a controversial topic that brings up many ethical issues and the rights of the patients the physicians serve. Also, if one were to formulate the categorical imperative in terms of treating others (including oneself) as ends rather than means, euthanasia would violate the categorical imperative, in that the person is treated as a means by killing himself, to reach the end goal of eliminating the pain. Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism Essay Sample The deliberate act of ending another’s life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. Therefore, since euthanasia does not meet the moral standards set out by Kantian, it would not support the act of euthanasia as a morally sound action. Kantianism states that moralss is a strictly a priori subject. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Voluntary euthanasia is justifiable when the action leads to the happiness of the individual and society. It is a consequentialist ethic. Tannsjo is correct to observe that the same philosophical starting points can be used to arrive at very different outlooks. Utilitarianism pdf and kantianism. Therefore in this paper I would discuss voluntary active euthanasia from Kantian and utilitarian’s perspective. Topics: Morality, Immanuel Kant, Ethics Pages: 5 (1611 words) Published: April 9, 2004. Hence, based on an understanding of human experience Utilitarianism proposes that the ultimate end of every human action is simply pleasure, and the absence of pain. since euthanasia meets the moral criterions set by Utilitarianism. Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism According to Thiroux and Krasemann (2012), utilitarianism is, “a normative ethical theory originally established by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that advocates brining about good consequences or happiness to all concerned” (pp. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, The input space is limited by 250 symbols. Also contrary to Utilitarianism, Kantian asserts that the moral worth of an action should be judged on its motive and the action itself, and not on its consequences. There is hardly any similarity between utilitarianism and Kantianism. According to Utilitarianism, euthanasia can be morally justified, whereas according to Kantianism, euthanasia is not morally justifiable; but I will argue that neither position provides an adequate resolution to the issue, due to the significant flaws that are inherent in … With Kantian, the significant flaw in their position lies in the fact that they make an absolute, immutable statement – do not murder – without any consideration for the context in which murder takes place. Euthanasia related to Kantianism and Utilitarianism. Kant’s theory contains several ethical principles Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism Essay Sample The deliberate act of ending another’s life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. To illustrate, if I were to make a promise with no intentions of keeping it, and I imagine all other people doing the same, then very idea of a promise would cease to have meaning, and thus, my action would give rise to a practical contradiction, and consequently, be immoral. So, if a person acts out of good intentions, but does not produce beneficial results, then his action does not qualify as a moral action. download word file, 6 pages, 4.3. According to Utilitarianism, euthanasia can be morally justified, whereas according to Kantianism, euthanasia is not morally justifiable; but I will argue that neither position provides an adequate resolution to the issue, due to the significant flaws that are inherent in … It is said that case should be read two times. Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism According to Thiroux and Krasemann (2012), utilitarianism is, “a normative ethical theory originally established by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that advocates brining about good consequences or happiness to all concerned” (pp. Thus, for these reasons, the positions of Utilitarianism and Kantian on euthanasia are inadequate in resolving the issue of euthanasia, and euthanasia still remains as a significant social-ethical problem in our contemporary society. • Utilitarianism says that an act is justified if maximum numbers of people are deriving happiness out of it. Though it is indeed reasonable that deliberately killing another for the sake of harming them is an immoral act, in euthanasia, a person is killed by another only by their own consent, and for the most part, with a good motive. But euthanasia, in essence, is murder, and this might lead one to ask whether there can ever be an exception to murder? Euthanasia and Utilitarianism The principle of Utilitarianism was invented by Jeremy Bentham. According to Utilitarianism, euthanasia can be morally justified, whereas according to Kantian, euthanasia is not morally justifiable; but will argue that neither position provides an adage Tate resolution to the issue, due to the significant flaws that are inherent in the reasoning that led to their particular positions. Act that your principle of action might safely be made a law for the whole world.”As somebody who believes in god and with Kant’s ideas, I agree with this quote because Kantian ethics are usually spoken of in terms of duty and doing the right thing, Kant himself thought that … Philosophy Support Materials: Moral Philosophy – Student Activities (H and Int 2) 2. Bentham's theory states that when faced with an ethical dilemma, you should decide what is morally right or wrong depending on what has the best consequences for the maximum amount of people. Also, inspired by his/her new life, the individual went on to form a charity that raised money for research in pain treatment, thereby increasing the happiness for a great many. This paper will find out what utilitarian and deontological positions would say about euthanasia. And if one were to make an exception in this case, what would then prevent us from making exceptions in other cases? The deliberate act of ending another's life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. We have to prepare both sides. We are going to have one group taking a Kantianism perspective and the other Utilitarianism. Therefore, since euthanasia meets the moral standards set by, 'Tess of the d'Urbervilles' by Thomas Hardy: An essay on the characters representing social class and social change. It irrational sa y that pleasure is all that matters and then to act with other things in mind as w ell. Nonetheless, Kant would consider it the wrong choice for the same reasons as those relating to an actively perpetrated suicide. According to Utilitarianism, euthanasia can be morally justified, whereas according to Kantianism, euthanasia is not morally justifiable; but I will argue that neither position provides an adequate resolution to the issue, due to the significant flaws that are inherent in … When a person is suffering tremendously and is most likely going to die navy’s, it does not at all seem unreasonable to kill him. Euthanasia is often considered a moral issue. Euthanasia is seen by some as killing, while others see it as removing a person from immense amounts of pain. Based on these ideas, Kantian propose that an action is good only if it performed out a ‘good will’; which is the only thing that is good, in and of itself. Here's a paper by Vellaman arguing against the permissibility of active euthanasia and PAS from the Kantian perspective. The deliberate act of ending another's life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. Initially, fast reading without taking notes and underlines should be done. A probable Kantian attitude towards euthanasia, apart from the analogy with suicide, can be derived from Kant’s vie ws on deliberate murder and punishment, i.e. In fact, killing the person would seem to be the most humane act one can perform, and in not killing the person, and keeping him/her alive in such a state of pain and agony, would be like an indirect form of torture; which in Kantian is not a moral act. The reason being that the people who care for the person are both happy and unhappy regardless of whether the person is dead or alive, but the person will only be happy if he/she is dead. Taking the categorical imperative in terms of being able to act In ways that can, without contradiction, become a universal law, if one were to universalism killing another person – which is the fundamental act in euthanasia – this would result in a practical contradiction. This can be illustrated in the most common case of euthanasia, where the person who is willing to die suffers from an illness that causes great pain, and will result in his or her demise in the not-so-distant future. therefore. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing Therefore, since euthanasia meets the moral standards set by Utilitarianism, it would support the act of euthanasia as a morally sound action. Unlike Utilitarianism however, Kantian states that ethics is a purely a priori discipline, thus, independent of experience, and that ethical rules can only be found through pure reason. For example, it is possible that the person, who underwent euthanasia because of the pain he/she suffered, could’ve been misdiagnosed and fully recovered shortly after. Therefore. 451). 451). We can argue for or against, but it has to relate to our moral philosophy. Kantian vs. Utilitarian Ethics of Euthanasia... Euthanasia is often considered a moral issue. Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism. Voluntary euthanasia is defined as “the practice of ending a … Let us look at the issue of euthanasia being admissible in a utilitarian framework. In additions I would be discussing arguments for and against voluntary active euthanasia. Also, Utilitarianism asserts that actions are judged as moral solely based on their consequences, and not on their motives. Logistics management - Evaluate the logistics operations carried out within the company highlighting the problems encountered. Euthanasia denotes any action that terminates the life of an individual in intense and debilitating medical state. It is Teleological and focused on maximizing utility, as opposed to the Deontological root of a Kantian philosophy. Aside from the cultural and religious aspects on dying, Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics discuss how we, as humans, should pursue our lives. Voluntary euthanasia is justifiable when the action leads to the happiness of the individual and society. To act out of a ‘good will’, one must act in accordance with a categorical imperative. Kantians believe “human life is valuable because humans are the bearers of rational life” (O’Neill 414). Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism Ethics can be defined as "the conscious reflection on our moral beliefs with the aim of improving, extending or refining those beliefs in some way." Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism Essay Sample The deliberate act of ending another’s life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. Let us look at the issue of euthanasia being admissible in a utilitarian framework. It is unreasonable, and bordering on foolish, to claim to adequately resolve special cases of murder such as euthanasia through a simple, general statement without taking into consideration its context. the death penalty. Essays: Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism. This fundamental idea then forms the basis for Utilitarianism’s Greatest Happiness Principle which states, “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. All you need to do is fill out a short form and submit an order. I am preparing for an in-class debate to discuss the morals of the Euthanasia. A utilitarian perspective is the foil to a Kantian viewpoint, as intent has no bearing on a decision, while the net outcome is the determining factor for whether something is right or wrong. independent of experience. Finally, Utilitarianism asserts that an action is good only if it promotes the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people. There are a variety of positions, based on the numerous ethical theories that have been developed, that one can take in order to resolve the issue of euthanasia; but the positions I will be looking at in particular, are the positions based on John Stuart Mill's 'Utilitarianism' ethical theory, and Immanuel Kant's 'Categorical Imperative' ethical theory. 4 UTILITARIAN ETHICS Bedau (1983) tells us that Kantian ethics contrast the idea of utilitarianism, which proposes that all situations demand a certain degree of pragmatism with respect to behavior. According to Kant there is only one categorical imperative, which is to “act only on that maxim in which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal (Kant, 528); and can also be formulated as “act in such a way tattoo always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as means, but always at the same time as an end” (Kant, 532). With Utilitarianism, the significant flaw in their position lies in the fact that it is built on the false assumption that the consequences of actions can be predicted, when in actuality they cannot. This can be illustrated in the most common case of euthanasia, where the person who is ailing to die suffers from an illness that causes great pain, and will result in his or her demise in the not-so-distant future. At present, euthanasia is one of the most controversial social-ethical issues that we face, in that it deals with a sensitive subject matter where there is much uncertainty as to what position one ought to take. Thus, under the utilitarian system, keeping the person alive in this scenario would have been the morally justified act, whereas killing the person would not have been. your own paper. Thus, in the context of the case mentioned in the introduction, the Utilitarian position on euthanasia would go something as follows: With respect to the individual who is willing to die, he/she would simply be happiest dead, and unhappiest alive. Essentially, the categorical imperative states that your actions must not result in a practical contradiction, which can be determined by nationalizing all other people performing the same act. Utilitarianism is an ethical approach that attempts to maximise "You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy", Don't use plagiarized sources. our expert writers, Copying content is not allowed on this website, Ask a professional writer to help you with your text, Give us your email and we'll send you the essay you need, Please indicate where to send you the sample, Hi, my name is Jenn Utilitarianism means that the outcome of our actions determines whether or not what we have done is good. A utilitarian argument against euthanasia. I'm in Canada and the debate has been started again by the government. In this case, killing the person Would seem to be the most humane and reasonable thing to do, whereas keeping the person alive would be akin to torture; which is also presumed to be a fundamental evil act. Mill is one of the philosophers who described the moral theory of utilitarianism, an ethical view that can help an individual in making decisions. First let us define voluntary euthanasia. (Dodds, Lecture 2) Kantian moral theory and Utilitarianism are two theories that attempt to answer the ethical nature of human beings. A KANTIAN APPROACH TO EUTHANASIA ABSTRACT The paper addresses the issues of euthanasia and thoroughly analyses Kantian response to the practice in question. it would back up the act of mercy killing as a morally sound action.Unlike Utilitarianism nevertheless. This simply means that the end justifies means. the death penalty. Hedonistic Utilitarianism An action is god when it maximizes the amount of pleasure for most people, consequences in a minimum amount of pain. 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